The Euro-Western: Reframing Gender, Race and the ‘Other’ in Film (London: I.B. Tauris). Written by Lee Broughton.
The Western has always been inextricably linked to the USA, and studies have continually sought to connect its historical development to changes in American society and Hollywood innovations. Focusing new critical attention on films produced in Germany, Italy and Britain, this timely book offers a radical rereading of the evolutionary history of the Western and brings a vital international dimension to its study. Lee Broughton argues not only that European films possess a special significance in terms of the genre’s global development, but also that many offered groundbreaking and progressive representations of traditional Wild West ‘Others’: Native Americans, African Americans and so-called ‘strong women’. The Euro-Western investigates how the histories of Germany, Italy and Britain – and the idiosyncrasies of their respective national film industries – influenced representations of the self and ‘Other’, shedding light on the broader cultural, historical and political contexts that shaped European engagement with the genre.
‘Sergio Leone once observed that “the Western belongs to everyone”, not just to Hollywood. Broughton’s bold, perceptive and well-informed study looks closely at West German ‘Winnetou’ films, middle-period Italian Westerns and British Westerns between 1939 and the early 1970s, to discover strong counter-cultural representations of Native Americans, African Americans and women. Broughton also explores the reasons why. The analysis of A Town Called Bastard and Hannie Caulder in particular is a tour de force.’
Sir Christopher Frayling, Professor Emeritus of Cultural History, Royal College of Art, and author of Spaghetti Westerns: Cowboys and Europeans from Karl May to Sergio Leone.
‘Within this book Lee Broughton considers the diverse meanings Westerns have obtained through contact with various historical, cultural and political contexts – avoiding a merely US-centric framework – and in doing so contributes to the much-needed discourse that places the genre within global networks of cultural blending. What provocatively and intriguingly emerges is that, where progressive representations of ethnicity and gender in Westerns were concerned, the Europeans got there first.’
Austin Fisher, Senior Lecturer in Film and Television Studies at Bournemouth University, UK, and author of Radical Frontiers in the Spaghetti Western: Politics, Violence and Popular Italian Cinema.
‘Broughton’s uniquely comparative study traces the legacies of national traumas in European Westerns of the 1960s and ‘70s. He locates a counter-politics to contemporaneous Hollywood productions in allegories of race and gender on screen, and in doing so expands the critical conversation about regional revisionism in an important and fascinating genre.’
Joanna Hearne, Associate Professor of English and Film Studies, University of Missouri, USA, and author of Native Recognition: Indigenous Cinema and the Western.
‘A hugely important book for its foregrounding of the Western as a transnational phenomenon. It sheds new light not only on the European Western, but also on the Hollywood Western and the ongoing dialogue between the two.’
Sean Holmes, Senior Lecturer in Film and Television Studies, Brunel University London.
Key films that are discussed in this volume include:
German Westerns: Arthur Wellin’s The Deerslayer and Chingachgook (1920), Arthur Wellin’s Last of the Mohicans (1920), Phil Jutzi’s Red Bull, the Last Apache (1920), Luis Trenker’s The Emperor of California (1936), Harald Reinl’s The Treasure of Silver Lake (1962), Harald Reinl’s Winnetou the Warrior (1963), Alfred Vohrer’s Among Vultures (1964), Harald Reinl’s Last of the Renegades (1964), Harald Reinl’s Desperado Trail (1965), Harald Philipps’ The Half-Breed (1966), Michael Herbig’s Manitou’s Shoe (2001), Frank Zimmermann’s Winnetou and the Treasure of Maikopas (2006) and Gert Ludewigs’ Winnetoons: The Legend of the Treasure of Silver Lake (2009).
Italian Westerns: Sergio Leone’s A Fistful of Dollars (1964), Sergio Corbucci’s Minnesota Clay (1964), Alfonso Brescia’s Days of Violence (1967), Giulio Petroni’s Death Rides a Horse (1967), Siro Marcellini’s Lola Colt (1967), Ferdinando Baldi’s Rita of the West (1967), Sergio Leone’s Once Upon a Time in the West (1968), Sergio Corbucci’s The Great Silence (1968), Sergio Sollima’s Run, Man, Run (1968), Sergio Corbucci’s A Professional Gun (1968), Giuseppe Colizzi’s Ace High (1968), Giuseppe Colizzi’s Boot Hill (1969), Sergio Leone’s A Fistful of Dynamite AKA Duck You Sucker (1971), Nello Rossati’s Django Strikes Again (1987), Enzo G. Castellari’s Jonathan of the Bears (1994) and Giovanni Veronesi’s My West (1998).
British Westerns: Marcel Varnel’s The Frozen Limits (1939), John Baxter’s Ramsbottom Rides Again (1956), Raoul Walsh’s The Sheriff of Fractured Jaw (1958), Gerald Thomas’ Carry On Cowboy (1966), Richard Quine’s A Talent for Loving (1969), Robert Parrish’s A Town Called Bastard (1971), Alexander Singer’s Captain Apache (1971), Eugenio Martin’s Bad Man’s River (1971), Burt Kennedy’s Hannie Caulder (1971), Don Medford’s The Hunting Party (1971), Eugenio Martin’s Pancho Villa (1971), Peter Collinson’s The Man Called Noon (1973), Edgar Wright’s A Fistful of Fingers (1995), David Lister’s The Meeksville Ghost (2001) and Paul Matthews’ Hooded Angels (2002).
American Westerns: Raoul Walsh’s The Big Trail (1930), Raoul Walsh’s Klondike Annie (1936), Richard C. Kahn’s Two-Gun Man from Harlem (1938), Richard C. Kahn’s The Bronze Buckaroo (1939), Richard C. Kahn’s Harlem Rides the Range (1939), John Ford’s Drums Along the Mohawk (1939), John Ford’s Stagecoach (1939), George Marshall’s Destry Rides Again (1939), Victor Fleming’s Gone With the Wind (1939), Edward F. Cline’s My Little Chickadee (1940), John Ford’s Fort Apache (1948), King Vidor’s Duel in the Sun (1946), Bud Pollard’s Look Out Sister (1947), John Ford’s She Wore a Yellow Ribbon (1949), Delmer Daves’ Broken Arrow (1950), George Sidney’s Annie Get Your Gun (1950), Richard Sale’s A Ticket to Tomahawk (1950), John Ford’s Rio Grande (1950), Felix E. Feist’s Battles of Chief Pontiac (1952), David Butler’s Calamity Jane (1953), Nicholas Ray’s Johnny Guitar (1954), Robert Aldrich’s Vera Cruz (1954), John Ford’s The Searchers (1956), Samuel Fuller’s Forty Guns (1957), Robert Parrish’s The Wonderful Country (1959), Peter Perry Jr’s Revenge of the Virgins (1959), Don Siegel’s Flaming Star (1960), John Ford’s Sergeant Rutledge (1960), John Ford’s The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962), John Sturges’ Sergeants 3 (1962), John Ford’s Cheyenne Autumn (1964), Gordon Douglas’ Rio Conchos (1964), Stanley Kramer’s Invitation to a Gunfighter (1964), Henry Hathaway’s Nevada Smith (1965), Sam Peckinpah’s Major Dundee (1965), Elliot Silverstein’s Cat Ballou (1965), Ralph Nelson’s Duel at Diablo (1966), Richard Brooks’ The Professionals (1966), William Witney’s 40 Guns to Apache Pass (1967), Burt Kennedy’s Welcome to Hard Times (1967), Robert Mulligan’s The Stalking Moon (1968), Sydney Pollack’s The Scalphunters (1968), Tom Gries’ 100 Rifles (1969), Arnold Laven’s Sam Whiskey (1969), Lee Frost’s The Scavengers (1969), Henry Hathaway’s True Grit (1969), Alan Smithee’s Death of a Gunfighter (1969), Herschell Gordon Lewis’ Linda and Abilene (1969), Burt Kennedy’s Support Your Local Sheriff (1969), Elliot Silverstein’s A Man Called Horse (1970), Arthur Penn’s Little Big Man (1970), Ralph Nelson’s Soldier Blue (1970), Alf Kjellin’s The McMasters (1970), Robert Altman’s McCabe and Mrs Miller (1971), Peter Fonda’s The Hired Hand (1971), E. W. Swackhamer’s Man and Boy (1971), Sidney Poitier’s Buck and the Preacher (1972), Martin Goldman’s The Legend of Nigger Charley (1972), Sydney Pollack’s Jeremiah Johnson (1972), Larry G. Spangler’s The Soul of Nigger Charley (1973), Burt Kennedy’s The Train Robbers (1973), Gordon Parks Jr’s Thomasine and Bushrod (1974), Larry G. Spangler’s Joshua (1976), J. Lee Thompson’s The White Buffalo (1977), Kevin Costner’s Dances With Wolves (1990), Sam Raimi’s The Quick and the Dead (1995), Mike Gabriel & Eric Goldberg’s Pocahontas (1995), Quentin Tarantino’s Django Unchained (2012), Gore Verbinski’s The Lone Ranger (2013) and Logan & Noah Miller’s Sweetwater AKA Sweet Vengeance (2013).
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